Qur'an: The holy book of Islam. It completely consists of a collection of notes that people copied down of whatever Muhammad said when he claimed to be having a 'revelation.' It was completed after his death, by people who were close to him and heard his every word. However, the Qur'an is not everything Muhammad said, but simply what he claimed to be hearing from Gabriel, as a 'revelation from Allah.'
Sira: Biographical Material. Nearly everything else muhammad did that wasn't included in the Qur'an and Hadith.
Hadith: Sayings of Muhammad. (The Talmud of the Qur'an). Except that it has divine force to it, whereas the Talmud is not claimed to be divinely inspired, as far as I know, but to be interpretations of the Jewish Bible. The Hadith, on the other hand, is the same in the plural and singular, and refers to extensive collections of brief to medium-length narrated passages of what people reported that Mohammed had told them when they asked him a question. The Hadith contain all the really incriminating evil stuff about Sharia Law, end-times prophecies, subjugation and persecution of nonbelievers--particularly Jews, and sexism. The most complete collection is by Al-Bukhari, although there are some significant portions that another compiler had that were absent in Bukhari, whose name slips my mind at present.
Sunna: A word that refers to both the Sira and Hadith.
Tafsir: Commentary on the Qur'an. Typically, the earlier they are, the more authoritative they should be considered, because of the proximity of the writers in time and space to Mohammed and his teachings.
Shirk: polytheism. "Associating partners with God." The 'greatest sin' in Islam. Muslims see Christianity as polytheism, because they adamantly believe that what Christianity says is that there are 3 Gods. They vehemently deny the Trinity. They see christians as polytheists and pagans. Also, believing that God could indwell a human body grates at their ears, as it does for Judes, and they say "a man cannot be god."
Islam: submission. It does not mean peace. There are thorough analyses of this word out there. Find them if you're skeptical. For one, if Salaam Alaikum means 'peace be upon you,' and 'Islam' means 'peace,' wouldn't they say 'Islam alaikum?' They don't. Because Islam doesn't mean peace. The point? Not a big deal from the 'submission to god' aspect, technically, except that muslims knowingly lie to people when they say that 'Islam means peace.'
On that note....
Taqiya: Fabricating Lies. It is condoned by Allah, since Allah is the Great Deceiver (Surah 3:54). Lying is perfectly acceptable, and openly encouraged, in order to protect muslims from nonbelievers (Khuffar) and to further the goals of Islam.
Kitman: Lying by omission. Same thing as with Taqiya, it's just a subtlety.
Khuffar: Worthless sub-humans. Khafir is the singular. It refers to anyone who is not a muslim--so technically, it means 'unbeliever.' It is also an extremely offensive word, but we Westerners don't realize this because of our unfamiliarity with Islamic culture. Basically, wherever you see the word 'unbeliever' quoted from the Qur'an in English, that's where a racial/cultural/religious slur is found. Muslim prayers end with requests to not become like the Christians and Jews, to keep the racism (that's the closest any word comes to describing the hatefulness of the word) alive.
Jibreel and Isa: Gabriel and Jesus. These are two obvious examples of Biblical characters who have doppelgangers in the Qur'an. The problem is, though they share the same names, the Gabriel, Jesus, Abraham, Mary, etc of the Qur'an are not the same as the versions found in the Bible. One book is lying. Wanna bet it's the Qur'an, which teaches that lying to the unbeliever is okay? After all, how can they know that Allah didn't lie to Mohammed, since Allah is the greatest 'makra' (deceiver) there is?
That's right. They can't, because Allah did lie to Muhammad, at least once. Muhammad got a revelation from Allah, proclaimed it, and then took it back later, claiming it was actually a deception from Satan....Allah's response? "Don't worry about that, Mohammed. It happens to every prophet from time to time."
I guess the compiler of the Qur'an never read this passage from Deuteronomy:
Deuteronomy 18:20-22 20 But the prophet who presumes to speak a word in My name, which I have not commanded him to speak, or who speaks in the name of other gods, that prophet shall die.’ 21 And if you say in your heart, ‘How shall we know the word which the LORD has not spoken?’— 22 when a prophet speaks in the name of the LORD, if the thing does not happen or come to pass, that is the thing which the LORD has not spoken; the prophet has spoken it presumptuously; you shall not be afraid of him.Incidentally, and not without irony, this follows immediately after the passage that predicts the coming "Prophet like Moses," which we all know is Jesus, but Muslims claim as the proof-text that Mohammed was foretold in the Bible. Well, the exact same chapter that allegedly foretells Muhammads arrival demands that such a liar be killed(see the commentary at bottom and the cross references). Looks like muslims are between a rock and a hard place on this one. Not to mention that the Bible also says that God doesn't lie (although they claim it was Satan who fooled Mohammed. One might wonder why Allah would have let that happen, knowingly)...
Jihad: Struggle. Sometimes inner, sometimes not. PRIMARILY refers to Islamic Conquest of unbelievers, and the subjugation, extortion, rape, plunder etc that accompanies it. This includes even when a muslim nation is not openly at war with a Western country. There is no peace between muslims and unbelievers (I'll find the verse for that later), there is only a cease-fire. In the meantime, they are constantly at war, and so individual muslims are encouraged to steal from the nonmuslims whose countries they live in and to rape their women for psychological purposes, to increase the terror the Dhimmis have of muslims.
Dhimmi: Anyone who is a second-class citizen to Muslim rule. Technically this might refer to a Khuffar living in a muslim land, paying the Jizya, but it can also refer to anyone who is a "useful idiot," who, like the omega male in a wolf pack, rolls over on his backside to indicate his submission to his muslim overlords. Anyone who wittingly or unwittingly promotes Islam and aids in the Islamic Conquest of the Western world is a Dhimmi, because they've already accepted second-class citizenship in their minds. Anyone who is a nonmuslim and proclaims that Islam is a religion of peace is practicing Dhimmitude (and also telling lies, but whatevs).
Jizya: Protection tax. Much like the Italian mafia in New York City might extort business owners to pay them money to protect them from other gangs, and if they refuse to pay, they'll seriously f*** up their business, or hurt them. Same deal here, except the mob is the muslim totalitarian state and the rival gangs are just other muslims. Jizya is the tax that non-muslims must pay for the privilege(???) to live in a muslim country.
Dawa: Proselytizing. Dawah (spellings are weird in Arabic. You can't really go wrong) is expounding on the glories of Islam and promoting it as the true religion ya di ya di yah. Being a Christian who keeps up to date with Ray Comfort's evangelism and the local preacher who comes to my campus every once in a while, the notion of proselytes for the devil's own religion trying to convert people in public is incredibly creepy. Never has spiritual warfare felt this real.